Glamorgan were bowled out for just 95 in their second innings as David Ripley’s men made light work of the home side.
Sanderson’s super seven, which came for the loss of just 22 runs in 13 overs, was key as the bowler took his tally for the match to 10 wickets for 89 runs.
Graeme White grabbed two for 36 and Rory Kleinveldt one for 20 as Northants eased to victory on the final day.
They had started it on 230 for seven and added 31 more runs, while losing two wickets, with White and Sean Terry both being dismissed by Timm van der Gugten.
The declaration came at 261 for nine and then it was about putting pressure on Glamorgan with the ball.
Northants did that straight away as Sanderson had Nick Selman, who finished his side’s first innings unbeaten on 122, caught by David Murphy for a two-ball duck.
Will Bragg went soon after, and Kleinveldt then got in on the act as he bowled Owen Morgan.
Jacques Rudolph was Sanderson’s next victim, with White then picking up the wicket of Aneurin Donald for 28.
David Lloyd was trapped LBW by Sanderson for 25 before Andrew Salter went for a three-ball duck to the same bowler.
It was becoming the Sanderson show and he got rid of both Ruaidhri Smith and van der Gugten before White wrapped things up with the wicket of Lukas Carey.
The victory means Northants move off the bottom of the table with five games of the Championship season remaining.