Part of a road linking Burton Latimer and the A509 at Isham will shut for nine months.
Station Road will close either side of the bridge near Weetabix on June 25 for essential works as part of the rail upgrade.
It will not fully re-open until April 3, 2019.
Graham Rait, who lives in Isham, said he understood the works were essential but that it would cause huge problems.
He said: “I think we will get to a situation where traffic will be stationary for long periods of time.
“We just won’t be able to cope with it.
“The Slips [near Wellingborough Golf Club] is being used as an alternative to the Wellingborough bridge closure and that’s absolutely dreadful.
“I know the works are essential but I’m concerned about this.”
A Network Rail spokesman said it is a complex job, replacing two arches of a multi-arch structure.
Traffic will be diverted via Finedon Station Road, Finedon Road and Burton Latimer’s High Street.
The demolition and reconstruction of the bridge is currently scheduled for the weekend of October 13.
Pedestrian access will be maintained throughout the work through a temporary bridge.