Network Rail says it is to carry out work in preparation for the electrification of the Midland Mainline.
Trees, vegetation and overhanging branches are to be removed later this year to allow overhead line equipment to be installed.
Network Rail revealed the plan in a letter sent out earlier this week. Residents living near the railway line will also be contacted in the near future.
The firm added that it is planning on holding public awareness meetings to let people see the plans for themselves and ask any questions.
Work is due to take place between Kettering and Bedford between October and February next year.
In the letter, Denise Thompson, from Network Rail, said: “For safety reasons, much of this work can only be carried out at night, when trains are not running, and due to the nature of the equipment some disturbance is unavoidable. We will make every effort to keep noise to a minimum.”